An essential element of any SCAL program, post experimental relative permeability and capillary pressure data acquisition is to perform core flood simulation and history matching for steady state, unsteady state and centrifuge experiments. Simulation is performed by our esteemed associate Dan Maloney using the CYDARTM software platform.

One simulation run is required for each of the following types of experiment:

  • Dynamic water displacing oil or gas displacing oil relative permeability (steady state & unsteady state)

  • Centrifuge water or gas displacing oil relative permeability

  • Dynamic gas displacing water relative permeability (steady state only)

  • Centrifuge drainage and imbibition capillary pressure



Dan Maloney

Dan has 35 years experience in routine and special core analyses, innovative research, and development, and improving oil and gas recovery from petroleum reservoirs.

Dan served as a Senior Research Associate for ExxonMobil URC and during his time at ConocoPhillips & Phillips Petroleum Company he proposed and performed special core analysis projects for reservoirs in North and South America, Asia, Europe, Scandinavia, and the Middle East. 

Dan served as President of the Society of Core Analysts (SCA) from 2003-2004, and received the SCA Service Award 2015, SCA Darcy Award 2017.

CYDARTM Relative Permeability module

Determination of relative permeabilities is a major objective in special core analysis. It is now well-recognized that a numerical interpretation accounting for capillary effects is absolutely necessary.

In CYDAR, relative permeabilities can be determined by history matching of any transient experiment using the Two-Phase Flow module (steady-state and unsteady-state displacements, centrifuge, semi-dynamic, and more). In addition, a special module is devoted to the standard single-step unsteady-state injection.

The simulator was developed by Roland Lenormand who served as President of the Society of Core Analysts (SCA) from 2015-2016.

Main features include:

  • Numerical simulation with capillary pressure, and determination of Kr using manual or automatic optimization (so-called history matching)


  • The simulated results (production, saturation profile, and pressures) are compared to experimental data; the difference is minimized in an optimization loop.


  • Automatic reporting: all results are exported in an Excel file